Is located in the North East of Central Asia. The boarders pass mainly through natural edges – ridges of the high mountain ranges and rivers, only in places they come down to the plains of Chui, Talas and Ferghana valley.
It borders with Kazakhstan on the North, with Republic of Uzbekistan in the West, with Republic of Tajikistan on the South West, and with People’s Republic of China on the South East.
The territory of the Kyrgyz Republic stretches 900 kilometers from the West to the East, 410 km from the North to the South and is situated between 39 and 43 of the North latitude. The area of the territory of Kyrgyzstan is 199.9 square km.
The average altitude of the territory above the sea level is 2750 meters, the highest point is 7439 meters (Pobeda Peak), the lowest – 394 m (on the South West of the republic). The landscape of Kyrgyzstan is mainly mountainous. The republic is rich on ores of non-ferrous and less-common metals, coal and other minerals.
The climate is continental. The rivers mainly belong to the Syrdaria system (the main among them is Naryn), are used for irrigation. There are many lakes, the biggest one is Issyk-Kul.
The flora in the pediments is deserted and semi-deserted, in the mountains – mountainous steppes, forests, Alpine and sub-alpine meadows.
The population of the republic is 5.5 (2009) million people.
Kyrgyz make 66.9%, Uzbeks – 14.14%, Russians – 10.65%. In Kyrgyzstan live representatives of more than 80 nationalities.
Population density in the republic in average makes about 22 people on 1 squared km. More than 80 percent of the population lives in lowlands, in basins and foothills. The developed industrial districts as Chu valley, underferghana plains of Osh and Jalal-Abad regions, are the most populous.
The state language is Kyrgyz; official language is Russian.
Among the permanent population the children under 14 make 32.8%, people of working age – 56.1%, older – 8.7%. The average age of Kyrgyzstan people is 26.62
The level of education of the republic’s population at the age of 15 and older: higher and not completed higher education – 12%; high specialized education – 10.8%, high general and basic general – 68.3%, elementary general – 6.3%.
The Kyrgyz Republic is situated in the center of Eurasian continent at the intersection of air communications between East and West, North and South. Moscow (Russia), Beijing (China), Istanbul (Turkey), Deli (India) are ituated in the zone of flight through time zone from “Manas” airport.
The population of the countries of mentioned region is about 2.5 billion people.
The project of the construction of railroad to China is in the study stage by the Chinese side. It will connect Kashgar (China) and Djalal-Abad (KR)
Kyrgyzstan is a crossroad of Central Asian civilization, a connecting link on the trade-caravan way between West and East. Historical and cultural archeological museum “Sulaiman-too”, Uzgen historical complex, petroglyphs of Saimaly-Tash plato, Manas Kumbez (Manas tomb), etc. make the cognitive tourism on the Great Silk Road more attractive.
The capital of the Kyrgyz Republic is Bishkek, and it is the most important economic, political, scientific, industrial, cultural and transport center of the country.
Date of foundation: 1878
Territory: 127,3 squared km
Population of Bishkek is about 1 million people
International “Manas” airport, railroads and highways and general infrastructure allow to the city to integrate into regional and world economy.
Bishkek is situated in the center of Chu valley at the foot of Kyrgyz Ala-Too on the attitude of 700-850 meters above see level. The summer in Bishkek hot and dry. The Temperature in July sometimes raises up to 42°C. Average temperature of the winter is 7°C. In winter snow cover doesn’t exceed 15cm. Average year temperature is about 10°C. Annually Bishkek has up to 400mm of precipitation. The number of sunny days reaches up to 322. Average RH in July is 38%, in January is 68%.
Appearance of the human on the territory of modern city dates back to antiquity. The finds of stone labor weapons on Alamedin Hydro-Electro Station testify the existence of primitive people in the area of the capital in V-IV milleniums B.C. In the end of II millenium B.C. on the territory of modern territory of the city is settled by the tribes of bronze epoch. They did pastoral cattle-breeding, agriculture, pottery and metallurgy.
Bishkek as a city was formed in Pishpek fortress built on the ancient trade road from Central Asia to China at the intersection with Vernen Route, which was the part of caravan so-called Silk Road.
Over the Soviet period a great number of buildings, including industrial facilities, has been built. During this years the Kyrgyz architecture school is being formed. Considerable part of public buildings is situated in historically formed center of the city limited by Ibraimova, Jibek Jolu, Gandi avenues and the railroad.
Ala-Too Square is considered to be the heart of the city. The modern image has formed in the first half of 80’s, when the architectural ensemble, including the Government House and Museum Building, was built and today there is a Kyrgyz State Historical Museum. Ala-Too Square hosts public events and nation-wide celebrations.
The capital has a lot of parks, public gardens, boulevards and squares with big number of monuments and memorials, beautiful fountains and big flower beds.
The city has a lot of museums. The largest of them are Kyrgyz State Historical Museum, G. Aitiev’s National Museum of Fine Arts, M. V. Frunze Memorial Museum House and Cultural-ethnographic complex “Manas Ayily” (“Manas village”).
Bishkek is a scientific and educational center of the republic. The majority of the Kyrgyz National Academy of Sciences institutions is concentrated in the city, as well as the branch scientific-research institutes. Many works of Kyrgyz scientists are actual and known abroad.
The largest higher and secondary-specialized educational institutions are situated in the capital. This is the National University, Technical University, Medical Academy, Mining and Smelting Academy, Agrarian Academy, Humanities’ University, Conservatory, Pedagogical University, Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, Kyrgyz-Turkish Manas University, Construction and Architecture University, University of Physical Education and others. Besides the numerous small libraries, Bishkek has the largest libraries: Kyrgyz National Library and K. Bayalinov’s Republican Children’s and youth library.
Among the sports facilities of the city the largest are the 25 thousand seat Central Stadium, 3 thousand seat Kojomkul Sports Palace, and racetrack.
Air transport links the capital of Kyrgyzstan to foreign cities. The largest aviacompanies have opened their representations in Bishkek. “Manas” airport is an air gate of Kyrgyzstan, it provides for takes-offs and landing of modern liners. Airport is situated 35 km away from the capital.
Since 93% of the Kyrgyz Republic is covered by mountains, the predominant mode of transport is by automobiles. 75% of all traffic, both passenger and freight, is carried by car or lorry. By January 1, 2011, the republic’s vehicle fleet consisted of 425,000 vehicles, of which 348,500 were passenger cars, 52,400 were trucks, and 20,800 were buses and minibuses. In 2010, Kyrgyz cars made 47.354 international trips and delivered 750,500 tons of cargo. In comparison to 2009, the trips increased by 11.870 and cargo by 282.600 tons. In 2010, the number of passenger trips amounted to 492 million. The country has 10 bus terminals, 36 bus stations and 22 bus ticket offices. The length of highway in the country is over 34,000 kilometers, 19 thousand of which are administered by the Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Kyrgyz Republic as public roads of international, national and local significance.
The enterprises of services and leisure recently have had a rapid development in the capital. A lot of small and the number of large hotels were built lately. Many different shops, cafes, restaurants, billiards-clubs, sport clubs, weight-rooms, internet-cafes, swimming pools and saunas.
A lot of tourist agencies work in the capital, and they arrange the hosting of foreign tourists as well as sending the tourists abroad. Tourist agencies render services in the sphere in hotel booking and avia-tickets selling, supply with transportation, organize a vacation on lakes, mountain climbing, horse, automobile, bicycle, water and mountain ski tours, etc.
Over the last decade the enterprises of mobile, paging and satellite communications, internet-providers, world express deliver, private television and radio station are being actively developed.
Osh city is an administrative center of Osh region and the second largest city of Kyrgyzstan, “South capital”. The city is situated on the East of Ferghana valley, on the height of more than 1000 meters above the sea level. On three sides Osh is surrounded by hills and not high rocky spurs of Alay mountain range. One of those spurs has a shape of a rock of 100 meters height, it stands in the center of the city and has a name of Sulaiman-Too. The city is divided in two part by tumultuous mountain Ak-Bura River. Osh is connected with the capital by the
airline and mountain highway of 600 km length.
The climate here is continental. The summer is hot and droughty. The average temperature of July is 26°C. The absolute summer maximum reaches up to 42°C. The winter is not stable, warm and humid. The average temperature of January is -4°C. Snow cover is not stable. Osh annually has up to 600 mm of precipitation. Maximal rainfall takes place in spring and beginning of summer. Second half of summer is draughty.
Osh is one of the most ancient cities of Central Asia. In 2000 Osh has celebrated its 3000 years anniversary. Legends relate its foundation to the name of Alexander the Great and even Solomon (Suleiman) prophet.
Osh was mentioned in Arabian sources of IX century.
There is almost nothing left from ancient Osh. According to the archeologists’ information Osh in antiquity was walled, had three gates, inside of it there was a citadel surrounded by shahristan. Cathedral mosque was situated near the bazaar, not far from Ak-Bura River. But it was possible to highlight three major historical stages of the city and Osh oasis. The most ancient settlement of farmers has appeared in the epoch of late bronze. On the slopes of Sulaiman-Too in the center of modern Osh there was quite big settlement. According to researches the Osh settlement was formed 3000 years ago.
In the beginning 80’s of XIX after Kyrgyzstan’s joining to Russia, to the South of old Osh there was formed a new city. New Osh began to be rapidly built over by Russian settlers. The building of streets and blocks of the new part of the city had straight and green streets. Rectangular blocks were divided into sections.
After the victory of October Revolution the textile industry was greatly developed in Osh. In 1931 the railroad from Kara-Suu to Osh was laid. In following years a lot of industrial enterprises of different specialization were built in Osh.
Modern Osh has one of the largest in Central Asia Cotton industrial complex, silk industrial complex, building industry enterprises, metal-working, mechanical engineering, enterprises of light, food, woodworking industry, and airport.
Osh city is an industrial and cultural center of South Kyrgyzstan. Osh is also called a south capital of Kyrgyzstan. A city has 2 drama theaters, 8 national theaters, 14 public and 62 school museums, culture and recreation parks. Osh regional and city library unite more than 10 city libraries.
There are a lot of trade putlets and public cafes in the city, there are more than 25 clinics, regional hospital, children’s regional hospital, Osh central city hospital, and two maternity houses, post and communications offices, Osh airport, and 2 bus stations.
Osh has Osh state television station and 2 private televisions, 3 radio stations and etc. There are different educational institutions, including higher one. Region has 702 schools, Osh State University, Osh Technological University, Kyrgyz-Uzbek University, Osh Higher Teachers’ College, Trade College and a lot of branches of republican higher educational institutions.
The main sights of the city are the Osh United History and Culture Museum-Rserve, where you can enjoy the view from the height of the mountain, and a lot of different beautiful exhibits and materials of Regional Studies’ Museum, petroglyphs and inscriptions on Sulaiman-Too; Ak-Bura Fortress (I-XII), memorials of architecture: Asaf-ibn-Burhiya Mausoleum (XI-XVII), the mosque of Ravat-Abdullahan (XVII-XVIII), and the mosque of Muhammed Yusuf Baihodji-Ogly (1909).
Very colorful Asian Osh bazaar could also be included into the sights of the city.
Osh also has a “Great Silk Road” Museum. Unique exhibits tell us about milestones in the development of material world of the regions’ people – from the Stone Age to modernity. Mainly it is the findings of archeologists, historians and ethnographers.
Administrative-territorial division of Kyrgyzstan
Occupies the territory of 20.2 thousand squared km. The region has 4 cities and 5 city type villages, 105 ayil keneshes (village councils), 327 rural villages.
Occupies the territory of 11.4 thousand squared km. The region has 1 city and 1 city type village, 35 ayil keneshes (village councils), 90 rural villages.
Occupies the territory of 43.1 thousand squared km. The region has 3 cities and 5 city type villages, 58 ayil keneshes (village councils), 181 rural villages.
Naryn Region (Central Tian-Shan)
Occupies the territory of 45.2 thousand squared km. The region has 1 city and 2 city type villages, 56 ayil keneshes (village councils), 132 rural villages.
Occupies the territory of 29.2 thousand squared km. The region has 3 cities and 2 city type villages, 79 ayil keneshes (village councils), 467 rural villages. Osh and Batken regions are the most southern regions of Kyrgyzstan.
Occupies the territory of 33.7 thousand squared km. The region has 5 cities and 8 city type villages, 58 ayil keneshes (village councils), 415 rural villages.
Occupies the territory of 17.0 thousand squared km. The region has 3 cities and 5 city type villages, 29 ayil keneshes (village councils), 189 rural villages.
The regions, and capital city, are as follows:
- Batken (Batken)
- Chui (Tokmok)
- Jalal-Abad (Jalal-Abad)
- Naryn (Naryn)
- Osh (Osh)
- Talas (Talas)
- Issyk-Kul (Karakol)